ambiance: The envelope of gases surrounding Earth or one other planet.
chemical: A substance fashioned from two or more atoms that unite (bond) in a set proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical system is H2O. Chemical additionally will be an adjective to explain properties of supplies which can be the results of numerous reactions between completely different compounds.
climate: The climate situations that usually exist in a single space, basically, or over a long interval.
climate change: Long-term, vital change within the local weather of Earth. It can occur naturally or in response to human actions, together with the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests.
cloud: A plume of molecules or particles, corresponding to water droplets, that transfer beneath the motion of an outdoor drive, corresponding to wind, radiation, or water currents. (in atmospheric science) A mass of airborne water droplets and ice crystals that journey as a plume, normally excessive in Earth’s ambiance. Its motion is pushed by winds.
concentration: (in chemistry) A measurement of how a lot of 1 substance has been dissolved into one other.
dissolve: To flip a stable right into a liquid and disperse it into that beginning liquid. (For occasion, sugar or salt crystals, which are solids, will dissolve into water. Now the crystals are gone and the answer is a totally dispersed mixture of the liquid type of the sugar or salt in water.)
electricity: A circulation of cost, normally from the motion of negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons.
forge: (noun) A furnace or store the place steel is labored and became new supplies. (verb) To form metals beneath warmth and/or stress, or (colloquially) to kind one factor from one other beneath the extreme warmth and stress inside stars.
hydroxyl radical: A molecule (OH) constituted of a certain hydrogen and oxygen atom. It has two half-filled covalent bonds, which means every seeks an electron. This makes the molecule extremely chemically reactive.
lightning: A flash of sunshine triggered by the discharge of electrical energy that happens between clouds or between a cloud and one thing on Earth’s floor. The electrical present may cause a flash heating of the air, which might create a pointy crack of thunder.
methane: A hydrocarbon with the chemical system CH4 (which means there are 4 hydrogen atoms certain to 1 carbon atom). It’s a pure constituent of what’s generally known as pure fuel. It’s additionally emitted by decomposing plant materials in wetlands and is belched out by cows and different ruminant livestock. From a local weather perspective, methane is 20 occasions more potent than carbon dioxide is in trapping warmth in Earth’s ambiance, making it an important greenhouse fuel.
molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest doable quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules will be fabricated from single kinds of atoms or of various sorts. For instance, the oxygen within the air is fabricated from two oxygen atoms (O2), however, water is fabricated from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
NASA: Short for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Created in 1958, this U.S. company has to turn out to be a frontrunner in house analysis and in stimulating public curiosity in house exploration. It was through NASA that the United States dispatched individuals into orbit and finally to the moon. It additionally has despatched analysis craft to review planets and different celestial objects in our photovoltaic system.
nitric oxide: A probably poisonous chemical (NO) produced by the combustion of fossil fuels or by lightning. NO can play a job within the formation of smog ozone, a potent lung irritant.
pollutant: A substance that taints one thing — such because the air, water, our bodies, or merchandise. Some pollution is chemical substances, corresponding to pesticides. Others could also be radiation, together with extra warmth or gentle. Even weeds and different invasive species will be thought about as a sort of organic air pollution.
radical: (in chemistry) A molecule having one or more unpaired outer electrons. Radicals readily participate in chemical reactions. The physique can make radicals as one means to kill cells and thereby rid itself of broken cells or infectious microbes.
trillion: A quantity representing one million million — or 1,000,000,000,000 — of one thing.
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